Like the djinns or genies of Islamic tradition, daimones were innumerable. The world was populated by them, some were better, some worse, and each could serve a different purpose, depending on its innate qualities. In the Koranic tradition, for example, Solomon was said to have gathered more than 60 million of them together to fight a single battle. In the same way that Mohammed had upheld a belief in djinns despite attacking other divinities of pre-Islamic Arabia, those who cultivated magical science (nearly all of whom were not just Christians but clerics) did not ascribe to daimones – a category of beings that included pagan gods and heroes as well as the angels of scriptural tradition – the negative, malign nature attributed to them over time by the official Church. In fact, these daimones or demons came to represent the hidden dimensions of the world, so that invoking them – summoning them by name – meant, from the point of view of a prospective science, drawing into the light, into existence, hitherto unknown aspects of the physical universe. That summoners could compel these spirits to obey them meant they had achieved the long-sought-after dream of mastering nature, which had previously required that magicians dominate their own natural inclinations.

Mara Tausiet, Urban Magic in Early Modern Spain. (P. 32.)
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