Singing For Her


March 2016

Hekatean Bibliography


I do not own all of these sources, nor have I read all of them. Some of them are outside my budget, and some do not interest me. This is a work in progress that will change dramatically over time, I’m sure. 

– Neheti


Primary Sources:

Apollodorus. Library, 1.6.2.

Aristophanes. Frogs and Other Plays (Penguin Classics),
David Barret, trans.  Penguin, 2007.

Apostolos N. trans. The Homeric Hymns:
Translation, Introduction, and Notes
, Johns Hopkins, 2004.

——–. Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, Shield,  Johns Hopkins, 2004.

———. The Orphic Hymns, Johns Hopkins, 2013.

Euripides. Ion, Line 1049.

———–. Phoenician Women, lines 109-110.

“Hymn to Hekate,” The Trojan

Christian. Pausanias’ Guide to Ancient
Greece (Sather Classical Lectures)
, University of California, 1999.

Hesiod. Theogony and Works and Days, M.L. West,
trans. Oxford, 2009.

Lucian, Pharsalia, 4.839-40.

Ovid. Metamorphoses (Oxford World’s Classics),
trans. A. D. Melville, Oxford, 2009.

Plato. Six Great Dialogues (Dover Thrift Editions),
trans. Benjamin Jowett, Dover, 2007.

Race, William R. Apollonius Rhodius: Argonautica, Loeb
Classical Library, 2008.

Strabo, Geography, Vol. VI, Books 13-14 (Loeb
Classical Library, No. 223),
trans. Horace Leonard Jones, Loeb, 1929.

Theocritus. Idylls (Oxford World’s Classics), trans.
Anthony Verity, Oxford, 2008.  

Virgil. The Aeneid (Penguin Classics), Penguin,
2010. 4.511, 4609-610, 6.247.

West, M. L. The Orphic Poems, Oxford, 1983.

Academic Sources:

Maria. “The Treasury of Sculptures from Tomis: The Cult Inventory of a
Temple,” from Dacia 53,

Alföldi, Andrew. “Diana Nemorensis,” American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 64, no. 2, Apr. 1960, pp. 137-144.

Ankarloo, Bengt and Stuart Clark, eds. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe, Vol. 1: Biblical and Pagan Societies,
University of Penn, 2001.

———-. Witchcraft and Magic
in Europe, Vol. 2: Ancient Greece and Rome,
University of Penn, 1999.

———-. Witchcraft and Magic
in Europe, Vol. 3: The Middle Ages,
University of Penn, 2002.

———-. Witchcraft and Magic
in Europe, Vol. 5: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
, University of
Penn, 1999.

————–. Witchcraft and
Magic in Europe, Vol. 6: The Twentieth Century,
University of Penn, 1999.

Ateslier, Suat. “The
Archaic Architectural Terracottas from Euromos and Some Cult Signs,” from Labraunda and Karia, edited by Susanne Carlsson
and Lars Karlsson (see below). pp. 279-290.

Aydaş, Murat. “New Inscriptions from Stratonikeia and its
Territory,” Gephyra, BAND 6, 2009,
p. 113-130.

Baur, Christopher
and Paul Victor. Eileithyia,
University of Missouri, 1902.

Behari, Jerusha. Ambivalent Goddesses in Patriarchies: A
comparative study of Hekate in Ancient Greek and Roman Religion and Kali in
Contemporary Hinduism,
dissertation from pursuit of Ph.D. at the University
of KwaZulu-Natal, 2011.

Berg, William.
“Hecate: Greek or ‘Anatolian’?” from Numen, Vol. XXI, Fasc. 2, pp. 128-140.

Bernabe, Alberto.
“The Gods in Later Orphism,” in The
Gods of Ancient Greece: Identities and Transformations, Vol. 5,
edited by
Jan Bremmer and Andrew Erskine, Edinburgh University, 2010, pp. 422-442.

“The Ephesia Grammata: Genesis
of a Magical Formula,” in C.
Faraone and D. Obbink, The Getty
Oxford, 2013. pp. 71-96.

———. Instructions for the Netherworld: the Orphic
Gold Tablets,
Brill, 2008.

Betz. Hans
Dieter. The Greek Magical Papyri in
Translation, including the Demotic Spells, Vol. 1
, University of Chicago
Press, 1992.

Boardman, John and
E.S. Edwards. The Cambridge Ancient
History: III part 2, The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of
the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries B.C.
, Cambridge,

           In particular, the chapters on
Anatolia pp.622 and 666 and pp 849, and Thrace on p. 591.

Boedeker, Deborah.
“Hekate: A Transfunctional Goddess in the Theogony,” Transactions
of the American Philological Association, 113,
1983, pp. 79-93.

Boustan, Ra’anan
S. and Annette Yoshiko Reed. Heavenly
Realms and Earthly Realities in Late Antique Religions,
Cambridge, 2004.

Bowden, Hugh. Mystery Cults of the Ancient World,
Princeton, 2010.

Bray, C.F.D. Aspects of the Moon in Ancient Egypt, the
Near East and Greece
, thesis in pursuit of M.A. at University of Otago,

Bremmer, Jan N.
“Divinities in the Orphic Gold Leaves: Eukles, Eubouleus, Brimo, Kybele,
Kore and Persephone,” from Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik 187,
2013, p 35-48.

“Preface:  the Materiality of
Magic,” The Materiality of Magic,
edited by D. Boschung and Jan Bremmer, Wilhelm Fink, 2015. p. 7-19.

British Museum
Department of Coins and Medals. A
Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum,
Vol. 1-28, reprint.
Nabu Press, 2011.

Christopher G. “Empousa, Dionysus and the Mysteries: Aristophanes, Frogs 285ff.” The Classical Quarterly (New Series), Vol. 41, issue 01, May 1991,
pp. 41-50.

Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion, trans. John Raffan,  Wiley-Blackwell, 1991.

Burnett, Andrew
et al. Coinage and Identity in the Roman
, Oxford, 2005.

Burns, Dylan.
“The Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster, Hekate’s Couch, and Platonic
Orientalism in Psellos and Plethon,” Aries,
vol. 6 no.2,
Leiden, 2006. p. 158-179.

Bury, J. B. The Ancient Greek Historians, Barnes
& Noble, 2006.

Carlsson, Susanne
and Lars Karlsson. Labraunda and Karia:
Proceedings of the International Symposium Commemorating Sixty Years of Swedish
Archaeological Work in Labraunda.
Uppsala Universitet, 2008.

Cartledge, Paul
et al. Religion in the Ancient Greek
Cambridge, 1992.

Ceccarelli, P. Ancient Greek Letter Writing, Oxford,
2013. p. 47-58.

Clauss, James and
Sarah Iles Johnston, eds. Medea: Essays
on Medea in Myth, Literature, Philosophy and Art
, Princeton, 1997.

Clay, Jenny
Strauss. “The Hecate of the Theogony
GRBS 25 (2984), pp. 27-38.

——–. Hesiod’s Cosmos, Cambridge, 2003.

Cline, Rangar. Ancient Angels: Conceptualizing Angeloi in
the Roman Empire (Religions in the Graeco-Roman World)
, Brill, 2011.

Cole, Susan
Guettel. Theoi Megaloi: the Cult of the
Great Gods at Samothrace, Volumes 96-97.
Brill, 1984.

Collins, D. Magic in the Ancient Greek World,
Malden, 2008.

Colvin, Stephen. The Greco-Roman East: Politics, Culture,
vol. 31. Cambridge, 2004.

Connelly, Joan
Breton. Portrait of a Priestess: Women
and Ritual in Ancient Greece
, Princeton, 2009.

Damiana, K. Sophia: Exile and Return, UMI, 1998.

Daniel, Robert W. “Hekate’s Peplos,” Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 72, p. 278, 1988.

Dasbacak, C. “Hekate Cult
in Anatolia: Rituals and Dedications in Lagina.” from Anodos, 6/7 Trnava, 2006/2007.

Daubner, Frank.
“Stratonikeia/Hadrianopolis,” The
Encyclopedia of Ancient History, first edition.
Edited by Roger S. Bagnall,
et al., Blackwell, 2013. p. 6425.

De Angelis, Franco.
“Archaeology in Sicily 2006-2010” Archaeological
Reports 58
, Nov. 2012, pp. 123-195.

Dickie, M.W. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World,
London, 2001.

Dillon, J.M. “Plotinus and
the Chaldean Oracles,” Platonism in
Late Antiquity,
S. Gersh and C.
Kannengiesser, eds., 1992, pp. 131-140.

Dodds, E.R. “Theurgy and
its Relationship to Neoplatonism,” The
Journal of Roman Studies, 37
, (1947), pp. 55-69.

Drew-Bear, Thomas. “Local
Cults in Graeco-Roman Phrygia,” Greek,
Roman, and Byzantine Studies
, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1976. pp. 247-268.

Drury, Nevill. Rosaleen Norton’s Contribution to the
Western Esoteric Tradition
, dissertation in pursuit of PhD at the
University of Newcastle, 2008.

Edmonds, Radcliffe G. The ‘Orphic’ Gold Tablets and Greek
Religion: Further Along the Path,
Cambridge, 2011.

Edmunds, Lowell. Approaches to Greek Myth, Johns Hopkins,

Edwards, Charles
M. “The Running Maiden from Eleusis and the Early Classical Image of
Hekate,” from American Journal of
vol. 90, no. 3, (Jul., 1986), pp. 307-318.

Edwards, Mark. Neoplatonic Saints: the Lives of Plotinus
and Proclus by their Students
, Liverpool University, 2000.

Ekroth, Gunnel.
“Inventing Iphigeneia? On Euripides and the Cultic Construction of
Brauron,” Kernos 16, 2003, pp.

Errington, Robert
Malcolm. A History of Macedonia,
University of California, 1990.

Arthur. “The Chthonic Gods of Greek Religion,” The American Journal of Philology, vol. 21, no. 3, 1900, pp.

Christopher. Various Acts on Ancient
Greek Amulets: from Oral Performance to Visual Design
, London, 2012.

Christopher and Dirk Obbink. Magika
Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion,
Oxford, 1997.

Farnell, Lewis
Richard. The Cults of the Greek States,
Vol. II
, Clarendon Press, 1896.

Jacqueline M. Hekate’s Hordes: Memoir’s
dissertation submitted in pursuit of PhD. at Pacifica Graduate
Institute, 2009.

Lawrence. “Fuseli, Another Nightmare: The
Night-Hag Visiting Lapland Witches,”
Metropolitan Museum Journal 17, 1984, p. 49-62.

Tobias and Birte Poulsen. From Artemis to
Diana: The Goddess of Man and Beast
, Museum Tusculanum Press, 2009.

Joseph. Didyma: Apollo’s Oracle, Cult and
, University of California, 1988.

———. Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its
, Biblo & Tannen Publishers, 1974.

———. Ritual Theory of Myth, University of
California, 1971.

Fox, Robin. Brill’s Companion to Ancient Macedon:
Studies in the Archaeology and History of Macedon, 650 BC – 300 AD
, Brill, 2011.

Friedman, Leah. Hestia, Hekate, and Hermes: An archetypal
trinity of constancy, complexity, and change,
Ph.D. dissertation from
Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2002.

Frothingham, A.
L. “Medusa, Apollo, and the Great Mother,” American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jul-Sep. 1911, pp.

Fullerton, Mark
D. The Archaistic Style in Roman
Bryn Mawr, 1982.

Gager, J. G. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the
Ancient World,
Oxford, 1992.

Graf, Fritz. Magic in the Ancient World (Revealing
Antiquity 10)
, trans. Franklin Philip. Harvard, 1999.

Graf, Fritz and
Sarah Iles Johnston. Ritual Texts for the
Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets
, Routledge,  2013.

Denver. “Apollo, Ennodia, And Fourth-century Thessaly,” from Kernos 22, 2009, p. 109-124.

Green, C.M.C. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana at
, Cambridge, 2006.

Griffiths, E. Medea, Routledge, 2006.

Gülbay, Onur. “A Group of Marble Statuettes in the Ödemiş
Museum,” SDU Faculty of Arts and Sciences Journal of Social Sciences, no.
32, August 2014. p. 177-196.

Harrison, Jane E. “Helios-Hades” The Classical Review, vol. 22, issue 1, March 1972, pp. 12-16.

———. Themis: A Study in
the Social Origins of Greek Religion
, Cambridge, 2010.

Harvey, W.J. Reflections of the
Enigmatic Goddess: The Origins of Hekate and the Development of her Character
to the End of the Fifth Century B.C.
, thesis in pursuit of M.A. at
University of Otago, 2014.

Heller, Katrina Marie. Iconography
of the Gorgons on Temple Decoration in Sicily and Western Greece,

dissertation in pursuit of Ph.D at University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, 210.

Henry, Oliver. “Karia, Karians and Labraunda,” in Mylasa/Labraunda, 2005. p. 69-105.

Herring, Amanda Elaine, Structure,
Sculpture and Scholarship: Understanding the Sanctuary of Hekate at Lagina
dissertation in pursuit of Ph.D at University of California, 2011.

Hinnells, John R. A Handbook of
Ancient Religions
, Cambridge, 1992.

Holmes, William Gordon. The Age
of Justinian and Theodora
, 1912.

Hutton, Ronald. Witches, Druids and King Arthur, A&C
Black, 2006.

Ireland, S. “Dramatic Structure in the Persae and Prometheus of
Aeschylus,” Greece and Rome,
vol. 20, issue 2, Oct. 1973, pp. 162-168.

Jim, Theodora Suk Fong. “Naming a Gift: the Vocabulary and
Purposes of Greek Religious Offerings,” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 52, 2012, pp. 310-337.

Johnston, Sarah
Iles. “Animating Statues: A Case Study in Ritual,” Arethusa 41, 2008. pp. 445-477.

———–. “Crossroads”
Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und
1991, pp. 217-224.

———-. “Demeter,
Myths, and the Polyvalence of Festivals,” History of Religions, Vol. 52, No. 4, May 2013, editor Wendy
Doniger, University of Chicago, 2013.

Development of Hekate’s Archaic and Classical Roles in the Chaldean Oracles,”
dissertation in pursuit of PhD. at Cornell, 1987.

“Hekate, Leto’s Daughter, in OF 317,” Tracing Orpheus: Studies of Orphic Fragments, edited by Miguel
Herrero de Jauregui, et al., de Gruyter, 2011.

———. Hekate Soteira: A study of Hekate’s Roles in
the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature
, American Classical Studies,

——–. Mantike: Studies in Ancient Divination
(Religions in the Graeco-Roman World), Brill, 2005.

——–. Religions of the Ancient World, Harvard,

——–. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient
.  Univ. of California, 2013.

———. “Whose Gods are These?
A Classicist Looks at Neopaganism,” Dans
le laboratoire de historien des religions
edited by Francesca Prescendi, et al, Labor et Fides, 2011. p. 123-133.

Johnston, Sarah
Iles and Timothy J. McNiven. “Dionysos and the Underworld in Toledo,”
Museum Helveticum 53, 1996. pp. 25-36

Kerenyi, Karl. Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible
, trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton, 1996.

———. Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and
, trans. Ralph Manheim,
Princeton, 1991.

——–. Gods of the Greeks, Thames & Hudson,

——–. The Religion of the Greeks and Romans, Thames
and Hudson, 1962.

Jr.,  Kenneth F.  "Man’s best friend? The changing role of
the dog in Greek society,“ in PECUS.
Man and Animal in Antiquity
, Sept. 2002, pp. 177-182.

Kotansky, Roy and
Jeffrey Spier. “The ‘Horned Hunter’ on a Lost Gnostic Gem,” HTR 88,
3, 1995. pp. 315-37.

Kraemer, Ross
Shepard. Women’s Religions in the
Greco-Roman World: A Sourcebook
, Oxford, 2004.

Laale, Hans
Willer. Ephesus (Ephesos): An Abbreviated
History from Androclus to Constantine XI
, West Bow Press, 2011.

Larson, Jennifer.
Ancient Greek Cults: A Guide,
Routledge, 2007.

Latura, George.
“The Cross Torch of Eleusis: Symbol of Salvation in the Ancient
World,” from a proposal to Coin

———.  "Plato’s X & Hekate’s Crossroads:
Astronomical Links to the Mysteries of Eleusis,“ from Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol. 14, No.3, 2014,
pp. 37-44.

Leonard, Miriam.
"Tragedy and the Seductions of Philosophy,” The Cambridge Classical Journal, vol. 58, Dec. 2012, pp. 145-164.

Lesser, Rachel.
“The Nature of Artemis Ephesia,” Hirundo:
The McGill Journal of Classical Studies, Vol. IV
, 2005/2006, pp. 43-54.

Liapis, Vayos J.
“Zeus, Rhesus, and the Mysteries,” The Classical Quarterly, vol. 57.02, Dec. 2007, pp. 381-411.

Lima, R. Stages of Evil: Occultism in Western Theater
and Drama
, University of Kentucky, 2005. (particularly pp. 225 chapter
titled The Cave and the Magician.)

Vasiliki. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary
and the Creation of Christian Constantinople,
Routledge, 1994.

Lo Monaco, Annalisa.
“Feast and Games of the Paides in the Peloponnese of the Imperial
Period,” Roman Peloponnese III:
Society, Economy and Culture under the Roman Empire: Continuity and Innovation,

edited by C.E. Lepenioti and A.D. Rizakis, MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 63 for the Research Institute
for Greek and Roman Antiquity of the National Hellenic Research Foundation,
Athens, 2010. pp. 309- 327.

Luck, Georg. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the
Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts,
Johns Hopkins, 2006.

Sabina. “Aradia in Sardinia: The Archaeology of a Folk Character,” Ten Years of Triumph of the Moon, Hidden
Pub, 2009. pp. 40-61.

———–. Witching Culture: Folklore and Neopaganism
in America
, University of Penn, 2004.

Majercik, Ruth. The Chaldean Oracles: Text, Translation and
, Prometheus Trust, 2013.

“Chaldean Triads in Neoplatonic Exegesis: Some Reconsiderations,”
from The Classical Quarterly, New Series,
vol. 51, No. 1 (2001), pp. 265-296.

Mander, Pietro.
“Hekate’s Roots in the Sumerian-Babylonian Pantheon according to the
Chaldean Oracles,” Religion in the
History of European Culture: Proceedings of the 9th EASR Annual Conference and
IAHR Special Conference 14-17 September 2009, Messina,
edited by Giulia
Sfameni Gasparro, Augusto Cosentino and Mariangela Monaca. Officina di studi
Medievali, 2013, pp. 115-132.

Patricia A. “A Portrait of Hecate,” The American Journal of Philology, vol. 102, no. 3 (Autumn, 1981),
pp. 243-260.

Mayor, Adrienne.
“Grecian Weasels” The Athenian,
Feb. 1989. pp. 22-24.

McClure, Laura K.
(ed.), Sexuality and Gender in the
Classical World: Readings and Sources
, Blackwell Pub, 2002.

Meadows, A. R.
“Stratonikeia in Caria: the Hellenistic City and its Coinage,” The Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. 162,
2002, pp. 79-134.

Meister, Michael
W. “Multiplicity on the Frontier: Imagining the Warrior Goddess.” Pakistan Heritage 2, 2010, pp. 87-98.

Meyer, Marvin W. The Ancient Mysteries: A sourcebook,
University Penn, 1999.

Mikalson, Jon. D.
Ancient Greek Religion,
Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

———. Athenian Popular Religion, UNC, 1987.

Mitchell, Stephen
and Peter Van Nuffelen. One God: Pagan
Monotheism in the Roman Empire,
Cambridge, 2010.

Elpis. Triple Hekate mainly on votive
reliefs, coins, gems, and amulets.
Atenas, 1978.

Mooney, Carol M. Hekate: Her Role and Character in Greek
Literature from before the Fifth Century B.C.
, dissertation in pursuit of a
Ph.D. at McMaster University, 1971.

Murray, Alexander
Stuart. A History of Greek Sculpture down
to the age of Pheidias (and his successors)
, vol. 2, Oxford, 1883.

Mylonos, G. E.
“Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries,” from The Classical Journal 43(3),
1947. p. 130-146.

Newton, Charles
Thomas and R. Popplewell Pullan. A
History of discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus and Branchidae, Vol. II
Austrian National Library, 1862.

Nixon, Shelly M. Hekate: Bringer of Light, California
Institute of Integral Studies, 2013.

Ogden, Daniel. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek
and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook
, Oxford, 2009.

—————-. Witches, Wizards and the Dead in the
Ancient World, Bloomsbury, 2008 (special thanks to @hekateanwitchcraft )

Ogle, M. B.
“The House-Door in Greek and Roman Religion and Folklore,” The American Journal of Philology, vol.
32, no. 3, (1911), pp. 251-271.

Oikonomides, Al.
N. “Records of ‘The Commandments of the Seven Wise Men,’ in the 3rd c.
B.C.: the Revered ‘Greek Reading-book,’ of the Hellenistic World.” Classical Bulletin, 63, 1987, pp. 67-76.

Otto, Walter F. Dionysus: Myth and Cult, trans. Robert
Palmer,  Indiana University, 1995.

Jennifer Lynne. Eleusinian Gateways:
Entrances to the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore at Eleusis and the City
Eleusinion in Athens,
dissertation in pursuit of PhD at Emory, 2008.

Parker, Robert.
“Greek Religion,” The Oxfrod
History of Greece and the Hellenistic World,
edited J. Boardman et al.,
Oxford, 1991. pp. 306-329.

———. Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early
Greek Religion,
Oxford, 1990.

Platt, Verity. Facing the Gods: Epiphany and Representation
in Graeco-Roman Art, Literature and Religion
, Cambridge, 2011.

Rabinowitz, Jacob.
Rotting Goddess: The Origins of the Witch
in Classical Antiquity
. Autonomedia, 1998.

Richter, Gisela M. A. “A Bronze Relief of Medusa,” from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin,
Vol. 14, No. 3, (Mar., 1919), pp. 59-60.

Ricl, Marijana. “Phrygian Votive Steles,” Epigraphica Anatolica, HEFT 33, 2001, pp. 195-198.

Rigsby, Kent J. “Chrysogone’s Mother,” Museum Helveticum 60, 2003, pp. 60-64.

Ronan, Stephen. The Goddess Hekate, Chthonios, 1992.

Rüpke , Jörg. The Individual in Religions of the Ancient
, Oxford, 2013.

Rose, H. J.
“Orientation of the Dead in Greece and Italy,” The Classical Review, vol. 34.7, Nov. 1920, pp. 141-146.

Sanchez Natalias,
C. “The Bologna Defixio(nes) Revisited,” Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik 179, 2011. pp. 201-217.

Scott, Michael. Space and Society in the Greek and Roman
Cambridge, 2012.

Scullion, Scott.
“Euripides and Macedon, or the Silence of the Frogs,” The Classical
vol. 53, issue 2, Dec. 2003, pp. 389-400.

Serfontein, Susun
M. Medusa: From Beast to Beauty in
Archaic and Classical Illustrations from Greece and South Italy
, thesis
presented in pursuit of a Masters at Hunter College of the City University of
New York, 1991.

Sergis, Manolis
G. “Dog Sacrifice in Ancient and Modern Greece: From the Sacrifice Ritual
to Dog Torture (kynomartyrion),” Folklore,
2010, pp. 61-88.

Seznec, J. The Survival of the Pagan Gods, trans.
Barbara Sessions, Princeton 1953.

Sgambati, Lynne. Hekate: Faces and Phases of the Transformation
dissertation in pursuit of a PhD. at Pacifica Graduate Institute,

Johannes. “Karian Theories,” LABRYS,
Uppsala, 2013.

Simms, Robert.
“Agra and Agrai,” Greek, Roman,
and Byzantine Studies 43
, 2002/3, pp. 219-229.

Skinner-La Porte,
Melissa. “Snakes on a Mane: Medusa, the Body and Serpentine
Monstrosity,” paper presented at the Monsters and the Monstrous Conference
at Oxford, 2010 on behalf of the University of Guelph.

Söğüt, B. “Naiskoi from the Sacred Precinct of Lagina Hekate
Augustus and Sarapis,” from Anados 6/7,
2006/2007, p. 421-431.

——–. “Stratonikeia,” Turkey through the Eyes of Classical Archaeologists: 10th Anniversary
of Cooperation between Trnava University and Turkish Universities,
2014. pp. 27-37.

Stallsmith, Allaire B. “The Name of Demeter Thesmophoros,” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 48, 2008,
pp. 115-131.

Suarez, Rasiel. ERIC: The
Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
, Dirty Old Coins, 2005.

——–. ERIC II: The Encyclopedia
of Roman Imperial Coins,
Dirty Old Coins, 2010.

Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India,
Cambridge, 1938.

Taylor, Thomas. The Eleusinian
and Bacchic Mysteries,
Amazon reprint, 1891.

Thaniel, George. Themes of Death
in Roman Religion and Poetry
, thesis in pursuit of M.A. at McMaster
University, 1971.

Tirpan, Ahmet A.  "The Temple of Hekate at Lagina,“
from Dipteros und Pseudodipteros.
Bauhistorische und archaologische Forschungen.
(BYZAS, Vol. 12), Phoibos
Verlag, 2012.

Trombley, Frank R. Hellenic Religion and Christianization, C.
Brill, 1993.

Turkilsen, Debbie and Joost
Blasweiler,  "Medea, Cytissorus,
Hekate, They all Came from Aea,” Arnhem, 2014.

Turner, John D. “The
Figure of Hecate and Dynamic Emanationism in the Chaldean Oracles, Sethian
Gnosticism and Neoplatonism,” The
Second Century Journal
7;4 . 1991. pp. 221-232.

Van Bremen, Riet. “The
Demes and Phylai of Stratonikeia in Karia,” Chiron Bd. 30, C.H. Beck, 2000. pp. 389-401.

Von Rudloff, Ilmo Robert. Hekate in Ancient Greek Religion, Horned
Owl Pub, 1999.

Warr, George C. W. “The
Hesiodic Hekate,” The Classical
vol. 9.08, Nov. 1895, pp. 390-393.

West, David Reid. Some Cults of Greek Goddesses and Female
Daemons of Oriental Origin: especially in relation to the mythology of
goddesses and daemons in the Semitic world,
dissertation in pursuit of a
Ph.D. at University of Glasgow, 1990.

Wilkinson, T. Persephone Returns: Victims, Heroes and the
Journey from the Underworld
, Pagemill Press, 1996.

Williamson, Christina.
“City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor: Sacred and Ideological
Landscapes,” from Bolletino di Archeologia On Line, volume speciale for
the Roma 2008 – International Congress of Classical Archaeology, in
Callaborazione con AIAC (Associazione Internazionale di Archeologia Classica,
Rome, 2010.

———. “Civic
Producers at Stratonikeia: the Priesthoods of Hekate at Lagina and Zeus at
Panamara,” Cities and Priests: Cult
personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean islands from the Hellenistic to the
Imperial Period,
edited by Marietta Horster and Anja Klockner, De Gruyter,
2013. pp. 209-246.

———. “Karian, Greek
or Roman? The layered identities of Stratonikeia at the sanctuary of Hekate at
Lagina,” from TMA 50, 2013. p.

———. “Light in Dark
Places: changes in the application of natural light in sacred Greek
architecture,” from Pharos, vol.
1, 1993.

———. “The Miracle of
Zeus at Panamara: myth, mimesis and memory in the civic ideology of
Stratonikeia,” KNIR, 2011, University of Groningen, powerpoint.

——–. “Panamara: The
(mis)fortunes of a Karian Sanctuary,” from Historische Erfgoed, Groniek, 2009. pp. 211-218.

———. “Putting women
in their place in Pergamon,” TMA
16, 1996, pp. 4-14.

———. “Sanctuaries as
turning points in territorial formation: Lagina, Panamara and the development
of Stratonikeia,” Manifestationene
von macht und hierchien in stadtraum und landschaft
, edited by Felix
Pirson, BYZAS 13, 2012. pp. 113-150.

———. “Shining
Saviors: The role of the cults of Hekate at Lagina and Zeus at Panamara in
building the regional identity of Stratonikeia,” Oud Historici Dag, Amsterdam, 2012.

Wilson, Lillian M.
“Contributions of Greek Art to the Medusa Myth,” from American Journal of Archaeology, Vol.
24, No. 3 (Jul-Sep, 1920), pp. 232-240.

Winkle, J. Daemons, Demiurges, and Dualism: Apuleius’
‘Metamorphoses’ and the Mysticism of Late Antiquity,
UMI, 2002.

Practitioner’s Sources:

Bebout, Tinnekke.
Dance of the Mystai, Pagan Writer’s
Press, 2013.

Bebout, Tinnekke
and Hope Ezerins. The Hekate Tarot,
self-published, 2015.

Carlson, K. Life’s Daughter/Death’s Bride: Inner
Transformations through the Goddess Demeter/Persephone
, Shambhala, 1997.

Conner, Randy P.
“Come, Hekate, I Call You to My Sacred Chants,” published only on

Crowfoot, Greg. Crossroads, Aventine Press, 2005.

Aleister. Moonchild, Weiser, 1970.

D’Este, Sorita. Artemis: Virgin Goddess of the Sun &
Moon: a Comprehensive Guide to the Greek goddess of the Hunt, Her Myths, Powers
and Mysteries
, Avalonia, 2005.

——-. Hekate Liminal Rites: A study of the
rituals, magic and symbols of the torch-bearing Triple Goddess of the
, Avalonia, 2009.

——-. Hekate: Her Sacred Fires, Avalonia,

——-. Hekate: Keys to the Crossroads: A collection
of personal essays, invocations, rituals, recipes and artworks
, Avalonia,

——-. Horns of Power: Manifestations of the Horned
God: An Anthology of Essays exploring the Horned Gods of Myth and Folklore,
Ancient History through to ModernTimes,
Avalonia, 2011.

Domenic, H.
“Who is Hecate?” The Beltane
47, Winter 2009/2010. pp. 9-12, 17-18.

Ford, Michael. Book of the Witch Moon: Chaos, Vampiric
& Luciferan Sorcery
, Succubus, 2006.

——. Magick of the Ancient Gods: Chthonic
Paganism and the Left Hand Path
, Succubus, 2009.

George, Demetra. Mysteries of the Dark Moon: The Healing
Power of the Dark Goddess
, Harper Collins, 1992.

Grimassi, Raven. The Witches’ Craft: The Roots of Witchcraft,
Llewellyn, 2002.

Jade Sol Luna. Hecate I: Death, Transition and Spiritual
,  2008.

——-. Hecate II: The Awakening of Hydra, 2009.

Keller, M.L. Greek Goddess Traditions and the Eleusinian
Mysteries: Spiritual Resources for Today
, 2012, In Press.

Marx, E. Junkyard of the Classics, Invisible
Books, 2006. (Ellipsis Marx is an alias for Rabinowitz.)

Mishev, Georgi. Thracian Magic: Past and Present,
Avalonia, 2012.

Oates, Shani. A Paean for Hekate, Lulu, 2012.

Christos Pandion, et al. Hellenic
Polytheism: Household Worship, Vol. 1
, Labrys, 2014.

Payne, Kenn. Askei Kataskei: the Official Covenant of
Hekate ezine,
 vols. 1-6, Covenant of
Hekate, Lulu, 2013-2014.

Perdue, Jason. Hecate’s Womb (and other Essays), Lulu,

Rabinowitz, J. The Rotting Goddess: The Origin of the Witch
in Classical Antiquity
, Autonomedia, 1998.

Reynolds, Tara. Hekate: Goddess Connections Workbook,
Kindle, 2013. (17 pages).

Ruickbie, Leo. Witchcraft Out of the Shadows: A Complete
Hale, 2004.

Sanchez, Tara. The Temple of Hekate: Exploring the Goddess
Hekate through Ritual, Meditation and Divination
, Avalonia, 2011.

Sannion. Bearing Torches: a Devotional Anthology for
, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, 2009.

Smith, Mark Alan.
Queen of Hell, Ixaxaar, 2010.

——-. The Red King, Ixaxaar, 2011.

Charlene. Lost Goddesses of Early Greece:
A Collection of Pre-Hellenic Myths
, Beacon, 1992.

Tate, Karen. Sacred Places of Goddess: 108 Destinations.
CCC Pub, 2006.

Rosemarie. The God who Comes: Dionysian
Mysteries Revisited
, Algora, 2003.

Varner, Gary R. Hekate: The Witches’ Goddess, Lulu,

Winter, Sarah
Kate Istra. Kharis: Hellenic Polytheism

For Public Consumption:

Evslin, Bernard. Hecate (Monsters of Mythology), Chelsea
House Pub, 1988.

Jonson, Ben. Sad Shepherd, Forgotten, 2012.

Keats, John.
“On the Sea,” published online at:

Christopher. Doctor Faustus, Dover,
1994. Act III, Scene 2.

William. A Midsummer Night’s Dream
(Folger Shakespeare Library)
, Simon & Schuster, 2004. Act V, Scene 1.

———. Hamlet, Simon & Schuster, 2003. Act
III, Scene 2.

———. Henry IV, Part 1, Simon & Schuster,
2005. Act III, Scene 2.

———. King Lear, Simon & Schuster, 2005.
Act I, Scene 1.

———. Macbeth, Simon & Schuster, 2003. Act
III, Scene 5 and Act IV, Scene 1.

Made some minor updates. 


Festivals: Soteria (UPG)

Soteria: varying
dates (arbitrarily, April 1st for my practice.)  

Gods: Zeus Soter,
Kore Soteira, Hekate Soteira (UPG), Soteira, Nike, Dionysos.  (There are more than 30  deities, daimones, and Heroes
with the epithet of Soter.)


Poleis: Delphi,
Athens, Kyiikos, Smyrna, Delos (Kyzikos), Priene, Chios,  Herakleia.

: Theater, Poetry, Games, and Competitions

On the 22nd of Elaphebolion in Athens, it was
established in honor of Zeus Soter and Pythian Apollo in honor of victory over
the Galatians.  But such festivals were
found in various cities and were dedicated to many different Savior Gods.

In Delphi, it was held in the Autumn, and celebrated the
removal of the Gauls from their territory, with rites dedicated to both Apollo
and Zeus. The Delphic Soteria was eventually expanded to include the entire
Greek world, with all of the Poleis invited to participate. This festival was
held every four years, and a winter version was held every two years, at which
many competitions were held. In practice it greatly resembled the Pythian Games
but with a greater emphasis on musical and theatrical performance.  The Mythic version of the events surrounding
the expulsion of the Gauls centers on Apollo’s epiphany which terrorized the
Gauls with earthquakes, storms, and terrors roaming the night amidst the
invading army. Apollo also appears, as a gigantic youth bearing weapons, to the
people of Delphi and tells them to remain in the polis and to do nothing to
protect their wine or grain. The motif is common, and is partially copied in
the decree establishing the Soteria in Smyrna.

Plutarch tells us that the Soteria of Sikyon was on the
fifth day of Daisios (possibly Anthesterion), and that it commemorated the end
of a tyranny by the Hero Aratos.

In Priene, the Soteria celebrated the expulsion of the
tyrant Hieron.

The Savior Gods were particularly honored by soldiers in
honor of surviving battles, as well as for health and freedom and protection in
the days to come.

Most of these festivals consisted of sacrifices to the
Savior God of that poleis, sometimes followed by games and competitions in
their honor. Many are of the Hellenistic period, reflective of the influx of
outside forces on the region. 

In my own practice, with its emphasis on Hekate Soteira, the
Soteria focuses on Her role as a savior. This year will be my first year to
formalize it in any way. I’m not very sports-oriented, but perhaps I can give
myself some challenge for that day. Elsewise, I intend to offer food and drink
in Hekate’s honor and to play some games perhaps.


Except there’s some gnarly things going on with my family
elsewhere, so I’m hesitant to make any firm plans at the moment. It may very
well end up just being an offering of food at the beginning of dinner and a
quick round of poetry writing in honor of the Gods who Save.

What would you plan on doing? Who is your savior God? There
are so many possibilities here!


Brandt, J. Rasmus and Jon W. Iddeng. Greek and Roman Festivals: Content, Meanings, and Practice, Oxford,

Byrne, Sean, trans. “On the Soteria Festival at Delphi,” IG II 1 1005, 250/49 BC, stele
inscription, via IG online:

Champion, Craige. “The Soteria at Delphi: Aetolian
Propaganda in the Epigraphical Record,” in The
American Journal of Philology,
Vol. 116, No. 2 (Summer, 1995), pp. 213-220.

Crew, P. Mack. The Cambridge
Ancient History VII Part 1 The Hellenistic World
, Cambridge, 1984.

Grabowski, Tomasz. “The Ptolemies versus the Achaean and
Aetolian Leagues in the 250s-220s BC,” in The
Greek World in the 4th and 3rd Centuries BC: Electrum
vol. 19
, edited by Edward Dabrowa. Wydawnictwo, 2014.

Horster, Mariette and Anja Klockner. Cities and Priests: Cult Personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands
from the Hellenistic to the Imperial Period.
De Gruyter, 2014.

Kotlinska-Toma, Agnieszka. Hellenistic Tragedy: Texts, Translations and a Critical Survey.
Bloomsbury, 2014.

Marwood, Martin A. The
Roman Cult of Salus
, BAR, 1988.

Perlman, Paula Jean. City
and Sanctuary in Ancient Greece: the Theorodokia in the Peloponnese
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2000.

Potter, David. The
Victor’s Crown: A History of Ancient Sport from Homer to Byzantium
, Oxford,

Pritchett, William Kendrick. The Greek State at War, part 3, Univ. California, 1974.

Ringwood, Irene Cecilie. Agonistic
Features of Local Greek Festivals Chiefly from Inscriptional Evidence: Part 1:
Non-Attic Mainland and Adjacent Islands, Except Euboea.
Columbia, 1927.

Sabin, Philip, et al. The
Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare, vol. 1
, Cambridge, 2007.

Scott, Michael. Delphi:
A History of the Center of the Ancient World
, Princeton, 2014.


Neuheisel, William. “Theater at Delphi,” photo, 2010, via

Waterhouse, John William, “Consulting the Oracle,” oil on
canvas, 1884, via wikicommons:


It’s okay to be angry with your gods.

It’s perfectly understandable to be so furious, you’re shaking with it.

It’s absolutely fine to tell them you need space.

Armed Aphrodite notes


Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 5. 1 :
“On the summit of the Akrokorinthos [the acropolis of Korinthos] is a temple of Aphrodite. The images are Aphrodite Hoplismene (Armed), Helios, and Eros with a bow.”

Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 15. 10 :
“A little farther on [in Sparta, Lakedaimonia] is a small hill, on which is an ancient temple with a wooden image of Aphrodite armed.

Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 23. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
“In Kythera [off the coast of Lakedaimonia] is … the sanctuary of Aphrodite Ourania (the Heavenly ) is most holy, and it is the most ancient of all the sanctuaries of Aphrodite among the Greeks. The goddess herself is represented by an armed image of wood.”

Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 17. 5 :
“Behind the Lady of the Bronze House [at Sparta, Lakedaimonia] is a temple of Aphrodite Areia (Warlike ). The wooden images are as old as any in Greece.”

“Literary sources know of Aphrodite ἜγχειοϚ (“with a spear”) in
Cyprus.” – Barbara Breitenberger referencing Graf. (A source for this in English would be nice).

Below – Statue of armed Aphrodite. Parian marble, found in Epidaurus. The sheath of the sword held in the goddess’ raised right hand crosses her chest.


This is a thought/prayer card of sorts that is posted above my altar.
Today I have no candles to light with intent, but the fire in my heart
and mind is just as strong. 


Long Eared Owl by After-The-Rain on Flickr


Andrea Mantegna – The Battle of the Sea Gods. 1475

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